E.U. reopens borders July 1, barring travelers from Russia, Brazil and the U.S., in rebuke of Trump.

The European Union will open its borders to visitors from 15 countries as of Wednesday, but not to travelers from the United States, Brazil or Russia, putting into effect a complex policy that seeks to balance health concerns with politics, diplomacy and the desperate need for tourism revenue.

The list of nations that European Union countries have approved includes Australia, Canada and New Zealand, while travelers from China will be permitted if China reciprocates.

The plan was drawn up based on health criteria, and European Union officials went to great lengths to appear apolitical in their choices, but the decision to leave the United States off the list — lumping travelers from there in with those from Brazil and Russia — was a high-profile rebuke of the Trump administration’s handling of the coronavirus crisis.

Travelers’ country of residence, not their nationality, will be the determining factor for their ability to travel to countries in the European Union, officials said, and while the policy will not be legally binding, all 27 member nations will be under pressure to comply. If not, they risk having their European peers close borders within the bloc, which would set back efforts to restart the free travel-and-trade zone that is fundamental to the club’s economic survival.

The hearing by the Senate’s health and education committee was framed as an “update on progress toward safely getting back to work and back to school.” But officials will likely grapple with an inverse idea, as a group of states pause or reverse course on plans to reopen.

The hearing is scheduled to begin at 10 a.m. Eastern, and The New York Times will have live coverage.

Dr. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, will be joined by Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, the Food and Drug Administration commissioner; and Adm. Brett P. Giroir, the assistant secretary for health.

Dr. Hahn is expected to disclose that the F.D.A. will require that Covid-19 vaccines be at least 50 percent more effective than a placebo to win agency approval, according to a senior administration official.

The F.D.A. will require that manufacturers prove the safety and effectiveness through a clinical trial. The agency will also require manufacturers to track individuals who have been vaccinated for one year, to monitor them for any adverse reactions. The news on the guidelines was first reported by The Wall Street Journal.

There are currently more than 140 vaccines being developed against the coronavirus. Vaccines typically require years of research and testing before reaching the clinic, but scientists are racing to produce a safe and effective vaccine by next year at the latest. The White House wants to announce a new vaccine before the November election.

The number of new infections is indeed falling in Russia, but that is the result mostly of a steep decline in new infections in Moscow, the initial epicenter of the pandemic in the country.

The situation outside the capital looks very different. Over the past week, the pandemic entered its worst stage so far in a diverse set of Russian regions, including the Republic of Tyva on the border with Mongolia, and the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia, an isolated area in the North Caucasus.

Despite this, the local authorities have largely followed the lead of Moscow, which went into strict lockdown at the end of March but has now lifted most restrictions.

In other news from around the world:

A swine flu virus in China shows the ‘hallmarks’ of a potential pandemic, a study says.


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